Imprudent King: A New Life of Philip II by Geoffrey ParkerPhilip II is not only the most famous king in Spanish history, but one of the most famous monarchs in English history: the man who married Mary Tudor and later launched the Spanish Armada against her sister Elizabeth I. This compelling biography of the most powerful European monarch of his day begins with his conception (1526) and ends with his ascent to Paradise (1603), two occurrences surprisingly well documented by contemporaries. Eminent historian Geoffrey Parker draws on four decades of research on Philip as well as a recent, extraordinary archival discovery—a trove of 3,000 documents in the vaults of the Hispanic Society of America in New York City, unread since crossing Philip’s own desk more than four centuries ago. Many of them change significantly what we know about the king.
The book examines Philip’s long apprenticeship; his three principal interests (work, play, and religion); and the major political, military, and personal challenges he faced during his long reign. Parker offers fresh insights into the causes of Philip’s leadership failures: was his empire simply too big to manage, or would a monarch with different talents and temperament have fared better?
10 Insane Facts About Philip II of Macedon, the Father of Alexander the Great
The rise of Macedon during the reign of Philip II was achieved in party by his reformation of the Ancient Macedonian army, establishing the Macedonian phalanx that proved critical in securing victories on the battlefield. After defeating Athens and Thebes at the Battle of Chaeronea in BC, Philip II led the effort to establish a federation of Greek states known as the League of Corinth, with him as the elected hegemon and commander-in-chief of a planned invasion of the Archaemenid Empire of Persia. In his youth, Philip II was held as a hostage in Illyria under Bardylis and then was held in Thebes, which was then the leading city of Greece. While a captive there, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, became eromenos of Pelopidas, and lived with Pammenes, who was an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes. Originally appointed regent for his infant nephew Amyntas IV, who was the son of Perdiccas III, Philip succeeded in taking the kingdom for himself that same year.
Philip II was a member of the Habsburg dynasty. He served as king of the Spaniards from to and as king of the Portuguese as Philip I from to The Spanish empire under Philip prospered: it attained its greatest power, extent, and influence. Philip was the self-proclaimed protector of the Roman Catholic Church. Philip was prepared to succeed Charles almost from birth. In Charles gave the duchy of Milan to Philip. In Charles resigned the Netherlands to Philip.
Early life and marriages
He was born in Valladolid , and was the only son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and his wife to live until he was an adult. He was Catholic.
Alexander the Great would not be the famous military leader we remember him as today if it had not been for the actions of his father, Philip. Philip had spent much of his adolescence serving as a hostage of foreign powers: first at the court of the Illyrians and then later at Thebes. Greatly weakened, the kingdom in BC faced the threat of invasion from several enemies: the Illyrians, Paeonians and Thracians. Through both diplomatic skill big bribes mainly and military strength, Philip managed to face down these threats. Philip transformed his army from a backward rabble into a disciplined and organised force, centred around the combined use of infantry, cavalry and siege equipment. Building on the innovations of Epaminondas and Iphicrates, two famous generals of the previous half-century, Philip reorganised his footmen. He equipped each man with a six metre long pike called a sarissa, light body armour and a small shield called a pelta.